Most people agree that there are five distinct stages of writing development, though some researchers argue there are four or six. The five stages are: pre-writing, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing.
Pre-writing is the stage when students are planning what they will write about. They may brainstorm ideas, do some research, or free write to generate ideas.
Drafting is the stage when students start to put their thoughts into a cohesive piece of writing. They will have a main idea and supporting details. This is usually the longest stage of writing as students work to get their ideas down on paper (or screen).
Revising is the stage when students evaluate their draft and make changes to improve it. This may involve adding, deleting, or rearranging text. Students may also change the order of their paragraphs or add new information they discovered during research.
Editing is the next stage where students focus on correcting any errors in grammar, punctuation, and spelling.
Publishing is the final stage where students share their finished piece with an audience. This could be done by posting it online, presenting it to classmates, or submitting it to a contest or publication.
Audio storytelling (3-4 years)
This is the stage where children are beginning to understand that words have meaning and can be used to communicate. They are also starting to experiment with using different sounds to create words. At this stage, children often enjoy making up stories and retelling them several times.
5-6 years: By this age, most children can write short sentences and are beginning to understand basic grammar rules. They may still make some mistakes, but their writing is usually easily understandable. At this stage, children often enjoy writing stories about their daily lives or things that interest them.
7-8 years: Children at this age are becoming more proficient in their writing skills and are able to write longer paragraphs with fewer mistakes. They may still need help with spelling and grammar, but their overall ability to communicate through writing is improving. At this stage, children often enjoy writing fiction stories as well as non-fiction articles on topics they are passionate about.
9-10 years: Children at this age have usually developed good writing skills and are able .
Early Emergent Writing (4-5 years)
In the early emergent stage of writing development, children are beginning to understand that writing is a way to communicate. They are just beginning to experiment with writing and may scribble randomly or draw pictures. Some early emergent writers may also be able to write their names and a few other words.
At this stage, it is important for adults to provide opportunities for children to explore different writing materials, such as crayons, markers, and chalk. It is also important to encourage them to write about things that interest them. Additionally, adults can model proper sentence structure and help children learn how to form letters correctly.
Emergent Writing (5-7 years):
In the emergent stage of writing development, children are starting to understand that there is a purpose for writing beyond simply communicating their thoughts. They begin experimenting with different genres of writing and start to develop their own personal style. Additionally, they start learning basic grammar rules and begin incorporating them into their own writing. At this stage, it is important for adults to provide opportunities for children .
Emergent Writing (5-7 years)
At this stage, children are beginning to understand that writing has a purpose and that it can be used to communicate their ideas. They may use scribbles, letter-like symbols, or actual letters to represent words and thoughts on paper. Children in this stage are also beginning to understand the relationship between spoken and written language.
Invented Spelling (7-9 years):
At this stage, children are using their knowledge of letter sounds to spell words phonetically, even if the spelling is not conventional. They may experiment with different ways of representing sounds, and their spelling will often reflect their pronunciation of words. This is a normal part of the writing development process and should not be corrected by adults unless the child asks for help.
Conventional Spelling (9-11 years):
At this stage, children are using conventional spelling rules more consistently in their writing. However, they may still make occasional errors as they experiment with new words or try out different spelling strategies. This is perfectly normal and should not be corrected by adults unless the child requests help.
Transitional Writing (6-8 years)
As children move through the early elementary years, they begin to develop more complex writing skills. During transitional writing, children learn how to use different types of sentences and to organize their thoughts into paragraphs. They also start to pay more attention to spelling and grammar.
In the transitional stage, children are usually able to write short stories and simple reports. They may also be able to write letters, although they may not yet have mastered all of the conventions of letter writing (such as salutations and closings). By the end of this stage, most children will be able to produce legible, well-organized written work. However, some struggle with handwriting or with generating ideas for what to write about.
Fluent Writing (8-10 years)
The Development of Orthographic Knowledge
Fluent writing is the stage at which children have developed a basic understanding of the relationship between spoken and written language. They are able to put their thoughts into words and use language to communicate clearly. At this stage, children are also beginning to understand the rules of spelling and grammar. They can usually write in complete sentences and their handwriting is legible.
children in this stage are beginning to understand how written language works. They are learning about spelling rules and the conventions of grammar. This knowledge helps them to write more fluently, with fewer errors. As they become more confident writers, they may also experiment with different styles and genres of writing.